Showing posts with label Spice crops. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Spice crops. Show all posts

Friday, July 13, 2012

Harvesting, Post-harvest Handling, and Marketing Spice Crops

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Harvesting
Onion and garlic are ready for harvest as soon as the stalks begin to wither and dry normally or at about 100 to 140 days. Harvesting garlic and onion can be done by simply hand pulling. When harvesting onion and garlic, uproot the bulb individually together with the leaves from the loosened soil.

Ginger matures in six to eight months. When the leaves of the ginger plant start to fall aside and begin to dry, the rhizomes are ready for harvest. In harvesting ginger, the use of digging tools is advisable to ensure that the rhizomes will be pulled out intact.
Harvesting black pepper normally starts three years after planting. However, black pepper plants from marcotted  stems start bearing fruit after a year. The berries of peppercorns in spike mature in five to six months. Peppercorns are ready for harvest when two to three of the berries in same spikes change its color from green to orange and the seed is hard when pinched. The fruit spike is carefully pick by hand. To pick, twist off the spike while holding the preduncle steady so as not to break any branch. Separate the peppercorns from spike immediately.
Pepper. On the other hand, is harvested when the fruit starts to turn red. Harvesting is done by hand picking.
 Post-Harvest Handling

Wednesday, July 11, 2012

Cultural Practices in Growing Spice Crops

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Garlic and Union- have almost the same cultural components practices.
Land preparation, there are two methods of land preparation being practiced in onion and garlic production.
1.       Thorough tillage or clean culture. This is done by plowing the field two to three times with more or less seven days interval.
2.       Without tillage or zero tillage. This method of land preparation is generally done in lowland rice fields such as in Ilocos region. The rice straws are cut close to the ground after harvesting.
Preparation of Planting Materials, planting and transplanting. When planting garlic, select good-sized and well filled healthy garlic. Separate the cloves discarding the small ones in the center because these will produce small plants, hence small bulbs. Heavier cloves give better yield in terms of bulb size and weight irrespective of the size of the original bulb. Five hundred to seven hundred kilograms of cloves are needed to plant one hectare at wider spacing (14 to 25 cm). When closer spacing (5 to 8cm) is desired, 900 to 1100 kilograms of cloves are needed per hectare.
Planting should be done at the start of dry season. This is during the months of October to January in Type 1 climate; November to December to Type II climate; February to July in Type III climate; and February to April in Type IV climate.
The Ilocos method of planting is done with the aid of a pointed stick. The cloves are planted 1 to 2 cm deep vertically into the soil with the root plate down.

Thursday, June 7, 2012

The Prospects and Importance of Spice Crop Production


The prospects of spice crop production in the Philippines are bright because of its high market demand. Types and varieties of high quality spice crops are available locally and can be grown in almost all part of the country.

In the Philippines, the most common type of spice crops grown are onion, garlic, ginger, black pepper, hot pepper, celery, shallots, leek, bay leaf, and tanglad. Among these crops however, only onion, garlic, ginger, black pepper, and hot pepper are grown commercially because of their high market demand and usefulness.

Uses of Spice Crops
Spice crops are distinctly classified because they give an agreeable flavor and aroma to food. They contain volatile oils, proteins, fibers, starch, minerals, and tannins which give flavor and have preservative and antiseptic properties. Spices are primarily used as food seasoning. In addition to their culinary uses, spices are also utilized as flavoring agent in beverages, active ingredient in syrubic medicines, coloring agent of textiles, and an important constituent in cosmetic and perfume products.

Monday, July 25, 2011

Harvesting, Post-Harvest Handling, and Marketing Spice Crops

Harvesting
 Different types of spice crops show different signs of maturity and readiness for harvest. A good farmer should develop skills in determining the appropriate time to harvest spice crops to ensure that these will reach the market in their prime condition.
Onion and garlic are ready for harvest as soon as the stalks begin to wither and dry normally or at about 100 to 140 days. Harvesting onion can be done by simply hand-pulling.
Ginger matures in six to eight months. When the leaves of the ginger plant start to fall aside and begin to dry, the rhizome are ready for harvest. In harvesting ginger, the use of digging tools is advisable to ensure that rhizomes will be be pulled out intact.
Harvesting black pepper normally starts three years after planting. However, black pepper plants from marcotted stems start bearing fruit after a year. The berries or peppercorns in spike mature in five to six months. Peppercorns are ready for harvest when two or three of the berries in same spike change color from green to orange and when the seed is hard when pinched. the fruit spike is carefully picked by hand. To pick, twist off the spike while holding the peduncle steady so as not to break any branch. Separate the peppercorns from the spike immediately.
Pepper, on the other hand is harvested when fruit starts to turn red. This is also done by hand picking.

Farm Record Keeping

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Farm record keeping is very important in any production pertaining agricultural enterprise. Farm Records provide substantial information important in decision-making. Information gathered from farm records also help in planning and budgeting. Records are sources of data in obtaining credit, insurance, and in preparing tax returns and reports required by the government. It is also useful in marketing produce and in other farming activities. Farm records determine the value of the project should it be used as a collateral for a loan or when the owner decides to sell the project.
Some records that facilitate effective management;
1. Cash record. This is a record of cash accounts in the farm. It may be a combined cash record where both the cash received from sales and cash payments can be seen in one record or this may be a special cash record wherein the cash received journal and cash payments journal are separately recorded transactions.

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