Showing posts with label Biology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Biology. Show all posts

Monday, August 19, 2013


Figure %: The Glycolytic Pathway.

Now that we have a general understanding of the broad topics of metabolism and respiration, we will turn our discussion to more specific metabolic pathways that lead to the derivation of ATP. In this section we will

Sunday, August 18, 2013


This guide is an introduction to the processes underlying cellular metabolism and respiration. Metabolism is the process by which living organisms acquire energy from external sources and utilize it internally in order to carry out necessary cellular activities. Respiration is a means of acquiring energy through biological degradation of food molecules.

In reviewing these processes, we will learn how eukaryotic animals convert ingested food into energy they can use to function. We will also learn about the essential role of molecular oxygen in the respiratory and metabolic processes. These concepts provide an understanding of how and why food and oxygen are such critical resources to most living organisms.

Thursday, August 15, 2013


Now that we have discussed the one universal structural element of cells, the cell membrane, we will begin
reviewing the specific intracellular components found in eukaryotes, or multi-cellular organisms. Eukaryotes differ from prokaryotes in the level of their structural complexity. Whereas the simpler prokaryotes contain all their genetic material, such as DNA and RNA, within the cell membrane, eukaryotes have intracellular compartments enclosing different structures, called organelles, which contain different molecules and enzymes that perform various functions within and between cells.

In this section, we will discuss the function, structure, and location of intracellular compartments found in eukaryotic cells. With an understanding of these principles we can see how these components are


Structural Differences in Distinct Classes of Cells

Thus far we have been describing the structure and function of eukaryotic animal cells. As we have
mentioned earlier, there are different classes of cells. In this short section, we will discuss the major cellular differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and between animal and plant cells. The diversity among various cells is a result of the varying functions and complexity of those cells.

Because plants convert sunlight into energy rather than obtaining energy by eating food the way we humans do, plant cells require additional structures that can perform this function. While most structures between animal and plant cells are the same, there are a couple of additional structures that perform

Wednesday, August 14, 2013


Cell membranes are very important structures to cells because they function as a barrier between the
components of the cell and the outside environment. The cell membrane is not only responsible for creating a wall between inside and outside the cell, it must also act as a threshold through which select molecules can enter and exit the cell when necessary. The cell membrane is what defines the cell and keeps its components separate from outside cells or organisms.

The cell membrane is composed of a double layer of fat cells called a lipid bilayer in which membrane proteins are embedded. The structure of the lipid bilayer prevents the free passage of


The purpose of this guide is to provide an overview of the basic structural components of living cells. In reviewing these structures, we will also discuss their functions.

All living organisms are composed of cells. A cell is a small, membrane-bound compartment that contains all the chemicals and molecules that help support an organism's life. An understanding of the structure of cells is one of the first steps in comprehending the complex cellular interactions that direct and produce life.

Cells can be thought of as building blocks of organisms. Some organisms are composed of a single
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