Showing posts with label ICT II. Show all posts
Showing posts with label ICT II. Show all posts

Monday, November 12, 2012

Photoshop Layer Masks

Layer Masks
Using Layer masks (not available with Elements) allows separate parts of layers to be hidden to show the layer underneath. as this is done with a mask, the original layer remains untouched, so mistakes can be easily rectified or changes made to the mask later.

Keeping the resolution size
Whenever you import a new layer, it must be the same resolution as the other layers. It does not matter if the document size is smaller, or if just part of a shot is used with a mask applied to the rest.

Making a selection for the mask
To make a selection for a mask, first make a rough selection around the relevant area. It does not have to be exact at this stage, or applied with a feather, as a more precise shape will be achieved later by directly manipulating the mask. Remember, when the selection is made. It is the area inside that will be preserved. This selection can be inverted by selecting Inverse from the Select menu.

Tuesday, November 6, 2012

Photoshop Layers

One of the most important features of Photoshop (and Elements) is the ability to work on images using Layers Different parts of an image can be changed independently on separate layers, which are controlled through the Layers palette and the Layers menu.

Layers palette
This is used to control and organize layers. When an image is opened, a small icon of the photograph appears. This is titled Background Layer. From here, new or duplicate layers can be added on top of the layer. The active layer (the layer being worked on) is highlighted in blue. To move between layers, simply click on the relevant icon or name.

Photoshop Styles and Effects

Photoshop Elements has some extra Effects listed in the menu to the right of the work space, which are used in a similar way to alter the look of photographs. Some will create textures or enhance text, while others add borders or create very exaggerated effects.

Use this effect to make a snow scene, perhaps for Christmas cards. Other Effects include Lizard Skin and Marbled Glass.

Oil Pastel
Use this to diffuse the tones of your image, except for the edge detail which takes on a dark, charcoal quality. This is one of Element's less extreme effects.

Photoshop Lens Correction Filter

This is one of the most useful filters in Photoshop, it can be used to correct several common lens distortion problem.

Lens distortion
Many lenses, especially zooms on cheaper digital cameras, are liable to slightly distort the image, either by visually bowing out (barrel distortion) or by misalignment color channels to a small degree, which shows as fringing on edge detail. When opened, this filter displays the complete image, overlaid with an optional grid and commands on the right hand side.

Before removing the distortion, ensure the image is perfectly straight. A small toolbox on the left contains Rotate Canvas. Simply click on the box and then draw a line over a plane that is meant to be straight (either horizontal or vertical) and release the mouse.

Wednesday, October 31, 2012

Photoshop: Blur filters

It is probably easier to understand the Blur filters, as blur is an accidental effect anyone with a camera will be familiar with. These filters reduce sharpness for various visual effects. There are several to use from.

 Use this to turn all the different levels of tonality and color in a photograph into an average single flat tone. Technically speaking, Average isn't actually a blur filter.

Blur and Blur More
 Use this to add a degree of blurring. To increase the effect, use them again and again. However, you may find other filters more useful.

Tuesday, October 30, 2012

Photoshop: Sharpen Filters

These filters are used to increase apparent sharpness.

Sharpen and Sharpen Mode
 Digitally, it is possible to sharpen images (or at least make them appear sharper) by increasing edge contrast. Experiment with the Sharpen or Sharpen More filters, but be careful not to take it too far as the edges will start to glow.

Unsharp Mask
 None of the Sharpen filters can do anything for a photograph that is out of focus, but they can certainly improve the clarity of one that is slightly soft. this is often necessary for scanned images. For finer control, use the Unsharp Mask, but again with caution. It has three main colors: amount, radius, and threshold.

 When "sharpening" takes place, it occurs by increasing pixel contrast, which is controlled by the Amount slider. Usually, a value of 100 percent or more is required.

 This refers to the number of pixels around the edge area that are being sharpened. A lower number will only sharpen edge pixels, while a higher number will sharpen a broader area.

 This amount determines how far apart of pixels must be from each other to be considered as separate areas to be sharpened.

Sunday, October 28, 2012

Photoshop: Sketch Filters

 Sketch filters use linear effects and textures to create the look of handdrawn artwork or very basic reproduction techniques. They are mostly monochromatic, and the colors set through the Color Picker.

Use for rough dark sketches. Chalk and Charcoal will give a finer result, giving the impression of charcoal having been used for the shadows, chalk for the highlights, and the image being drawn on midtone gray paper.

Photocopiers were once notoriously bad at reproducing photographs. For a retro 1960s cheap newsletter look, use this filter. For very strong graphic results, increase both the Detail and the Darkness.

Graphic Pen
Some  illustrators stroke in detail onto a drawing using a very fine graphic pen. use this filter to give the same impression. It offers a choice of four directions of stroke, length of stroke, and balance of density. For softer pencil-like results, choose a gray for the Foreground Color.

Halftone Pattern
Use this impression of a simple dot screen by converting a photograph into a series of tiny dots for photomechanical reproduction. For some interesting pop art effects, enlarge the screen in black and white and then add block colors. Your image will then require some sharpening.

Use this filter to make your image look like a very simple rubber stamp. For bold graphic effects, keep detail to a minimum.

Conte Crayon
This filter resembles Conte Crayons drawn onto a variety of heavily textured surfaces, including brick, sandstone, and canvas, but sadly not paper. you can control the foreground and background colors, the relief and scaling properties of the texture, and the direction of the light illuminating the surface.

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Photoshop: Stylize Filters

  More exaggerated effects are possible using the Stylize Filters.

Use this filter, which simulates the photographic darkroom technique of solarization to partially reverse an image. This was traditionally done through rexposing a negative or print during development. It is usually more effective on black-and-white photographs.

Find Edges
  Use this to create a very exaggerated linear rendition of your photograph. It is often best applied having first converted the image to monochrome. For more controllable results, use the Glowing Edges filter, but this will convert the image to negative. However, this can be easily inverted by pressing Ctrl/Command I.

Photoshop: Distort Filters

 These are used for more extreme physical changes to an image.

Diffuse Glow
  Use this excellent filter for adding a soft ethereal glow to highlights, as well as textural grain if required. Effects can vary from just a touch in the highlights to giving the whole image a bright ghostly appearance with just diffused shadows appearing.

  Use this filter to squeeze or inflate images. Apply a percentage for different effects.

   This works in a similar way to pinch. Use to rotate the image (or a selection) around a central point in the frame.

Noise Filters
   Use the Add Noise filter to add a grain like pattern. This is useful when applied subtly to remove the purity and sharpness of digital images, or to give the impression a grain. Tick the monochromatic option to avoid any unwanted specks of color noise being seen. The Texture filters menu also has a Grain filter that has several interesting styles of grain and interference. However, it does not have monochrome option, making the grain look too colorful, though it is very effective for images converted to Grayscale, which can later be turned back to RGB.

Lens correction

Wednesday, October 10, 2012

Photoshop: Brush Strokes

  Similar to the painterly effects of some of the Artistic filters. Brush strokes replicates different brushes used by painters to create different graphic effects.

  • Accented Edges. Use this to apply a variable edge around image detail. Depending on the setting of Edge Width, this can vary from a dark, charcoal black to a softer, chalky white.
  • Angled Strokes. Use this to give the effect of hard brush strokes. You can change their direction, stroke length, and sharpness. To break up the regularity, a small number of strokes appear in the opposite direction.
  • Dark Strokes. Use this to accentuate dark areas of an image with black pencil-like strokes, and lighter parts and white pencil-like strokes. The intensity of these shades, and the balance between the two, is variable. Images sometimes benefit from sharpening afterward.
  • Ink Outlines. Use this to make your photograph look as though dark and light pens have been carefully drawn around all edge detail, and the midtones smoothed out.
  • Crosshatch. Use Crosshatching, a technique used by painters and illustrators, to create texture. They brush the same area twice but with strokes in the opposite direction. This filter can be used very effectively with monochrome images.
  • Sumi-e. Use this to give the effect of a wet Japanese ink brush on absorbent rice paper. It is similar in a way to dark Strokes and Ink Outlines, but with a softer rendition that may need some sharpening.

Photoshop: The Artistic Filters

   Use this to create various artistic effects and media, such as painting, drawing, collage, and pastels. The filter gallery is essential to view the wide choice available which includes..
  • Watercolor. Use this to simplify detail, making it appear to have been painted using watercolors. It is very effective, but usually tends to look like it was painted with a very dark palette of colors.
  • Dry Brush. Use this to simulate the effect of oil or acrylic painting. Though still quite harsh, it has a lighter feel than the Watercolor filter. For a rougher effect, try Palette Knife or Paint Daubs.
  • Poster Edges. Use this to reduce the basic colors of an image, and apply thick black outline sketches around details and shapes to give the slight appearance of a colored woodcut.
  • Cutout. Use Cutout to make photographs look as though they have been collage with cut-out pieces of paper. For every abstracts results adjust the Edges Simplicity and Edge Fidelity. Make changes to the contrast and saturation of color for different effects.
  • Plastic Wrap. Use this filter to give the impression that your photograph is three-dimensional and wrapped in plastic.

Thursday, September 27, 2012

The Photoshop Filters Menu

The following pages concentrate on the most popular and useful filters, which are found in several different sub menus.
  • Which Filters? Use filters to change the appearance of images, from applying a slight manipulation to completely replicating a style of painting. It's a good idea to experiment with all of the filters at your disposal on a copy of an image (go to File > Save As to save a copy of your image under a different name).
  • Plug Ins. Plug Ins are separate stand-alone programs that can be incorporated into a program such as Photoshop. Simply place them in the Plug In folder. Extra filters, often found for free on the internet or in photo magazines, can be used as Plug Ins.
Filter Gallery
  • Filter Gallery. Often, when a filter is selected, the Filter Gallery appears on the screen. This is useful for comparing the results of different filters, which are contained in six different folders: Artistic, Brush Strokes, Distort, Sketch, Stylize, and Texture. The Gallery has a panel of thumbnail representations of each of the filters. Clicking on each will change the effect in the main window.
  • Image window. Control the size of the image by the percentage, or + and - controls, at the bottom left of the window. When the image is enlarged, drag it around with the Hand tool.
  • Controlling the Filter. Each filter-and remember there are other filters that are not accessed through the Filter Gallery-has different controls to change its effect and strength.
  • Multiple Filters. In the bottom right of the Gallery is a description of the current filter. Click the Eye icon on the left on or off to reveal or hide the effect of the filter. To add another filter, click one on the copy icon below. To delete a filter, highlight the name then click on the trashcan. 

Tuesday, September 18, 2012

The Toolbox

It contains many of the main tools used for retouching, editing, and cropping images, as well as those for making selections, adding type, and choosing colors. The following pages can be used as a concise guide to these different tools.

  • Toolbox shortcuts. To use any tool, click on the relevant icon (some are hidden behind others, so click on the small black triangle in the corner of icons to see what's concealed) or simply use a single letter shortcut (given in brackets after title). If there is more than one tool, continue to press the shortcut key until the correct tool is highlighted.
Navigation tools
  • Move (V). Use this tools to move layers and selections, either within the image or when moving to another file.
  • Zoom (Z). Use Zoom to quickly magnify or reduce the image. Click on the relevant icon or simply press Ctrl/space + "+" or "-". Set the rate of zoom as a percentage in the Tool option bar. With Zoom, the point where the tool is used becomes the center of magnificent.
  • Hand (H). To move an enlarged image around, select the Hand tool and then drag the image.
  • Eyedropper (I). Use this to select a color by clicking on any point of an open file, or within the color range of the Color Picker. The color will then be shown as a Foreground Color in the Color Picker. To select a background color, hold down the Alt key before clicking.
Selection tools
  • Marquee tools (m). Use the Rectangular Marquee tool to make a rectangular selection, and the Elliptical Marquee tool to make a circular  or oval selection. To move the selection, click inside it and drag it. To remove the selection, click on it or outside of it once, with the same selection tool.
  • Lasso (L). There are three different Lasso selection tools used for drawing around an object. The normal Lasso is the best for drawing freehand. Magnetic will automatically trace an outline, and Polygonal draws straight lines.
  • Magic Wand (W). Use Magic Wand to select an area of similar colored pixels. Simply click within the chosen area.
  • Magic Selection (F). Use this to make a selection of different colors and textures, such as when isolating a figure from a scene. (It is only available with Photoshop Elements.)
  • Selection brush (A). Use this brush to draw a shape that becomes a selection when the mouse or graphic pen is released.
  • Type tools (T). Four different tools are available for adding text. Horizontal is for normal text, while vertical is use to position type downward. There are also two Type Mask tools, again horizontal and vertical, which will make a selection based on text. 
Crop tools
  • Crop (C). The crop tools is the most efficient way to select part of an image. to change the crop, or rotate it at any time, drag or twist any of the handles of the bounding box. To make the crop, press the Return key or double-click inside the area.
  • Slice tool (K). Use Slice to cut images into sections for uploading onto websites.
Retouching tools
  • Healing brush (J). This is one of the main tools for retouching and can be used to remove parts of a shot. As with any brush, set the style, size, and mode in the Tool Option bar. It works best when isolated objects within either a plain or confused background need to be touched out. Select a source point (usually an area just beside the part to be removed) by holding down the Alt key and clicking once. Move the cursor over the offending part and click again to add the selected area, or hold and brush in the blend. By default, "Aligned" in the Tool Options bar is unticked so that, until a new sample point is clicked, it will continue to sample the same source point.
  • Spot Healing Brush (J). This works in a similar fashion to the Healing Brush but is easier to use. Simply drag the brush over a small area to be retouched then release mouse button. Providing the background is suitable, the area being retouched will be replaced by the background tone or pattern.
  • Red-Eye Removal (J). Use this tool to remove red eye, which sometimes occurs when a direct flash is used for a portrait, resulting in the retinas at the back of the eyes being illuminated. Simply click over each pupil to turn it black. Set the pupil size and the amount of darkening in the Tool Options bar. To prevent the eyes looking naturally dark or wide, set between 50 and 75 percent.
  • Patch (J). Use Patch to repair selected areas with pixels from another section. This tool is similar to the Healing Brush.
  • Clone Stamp (S). Use the Clone Stamp tool to sample part of a photograph  and then repeat it elsewhere in the shot in the shot or on a different image. Similar to the Healing Brushes, set the size and mode in the Tool Option bar. Click the area to be retouched while holding down the Alt key, release, then brush in elsewhere on the shot. It is especially good for adding a new texture to parts of an image, though this often requires using a lower opacity settings. Be careful not to overuse this tool from the same direction.
  • Eraser (E). Use the Eraser to remove part of the image so the layer underneath is seen. It is a single layer, the background color will become visible. Use background eraser to remove to image and the background as well, and magic eraser to remove the similar colored pixels.
  • Blur, Sharpen, Smudge (R). These three tools selectively add each effect to just the area being brushed. They are set to 50 percent strength by default, though this be usually be too strong. While selective blurring can sometimes be effective if done subtly, sharpening is usually  best applied to the whole image.
  • Dodge, Burn, Sponge (O). Use dodging and burning to create the effects used in a conventional darkroom to selectively lighten and darken ares of a shot. It is important to select whether the Shadows, Midtones, or Highlights are to be affected. Use the Sponge tool to brush in an increase or decrease in color saturation.
Brush, painting, and drawing tools
  • Brush (B). Use this tool to brush the tone selected as a Foreground Color in the Color Picker. set the shape, size, mode, and opacity of the brush separately. The Impressionist Brush does not add a color, but instead changes the existing image by applying stylized brush strokes, the idea being to create the impression of different painting styles. Use it with caution, though, if at all.
  • Pencil (B). use this tool, which is very similar to the Brush tool, to add the tone selected as a Foreground Color in the Color Picker. It works like a pencil and will give a hard-edge line.
  • Color Replacement. Use this to convert the tone brushed in to the Foreground Color.
  • History Brush (Y). Use this to brush in parts of a snapshot made in the History palette to the current image.
  • Art History Brush (Y). Use this brush in similar way to the History Brush to create an "artistic" brush style.
  • Paint Bucket (G). Use Paint Bucket to fill a defined or selected area with the Foreground Color. Simply click within the selection or the open layer.
  • Gradient (G). Use to add a gradation, perhaps to make flat skies appear darker toward the top.
  • Shape tools (U). There are several different tools to create shapes. Set their color through the Color Picker. Use the Rectangle tool to make simple plain boxes to drop images into, and Line tool for drawing linear shapes.
  • Pen tool (P). Use the various Pen tools to draw shapes and lines. Combine them with the Shape tools to make intricate shapes.
  • Color Picker. Set the foreground and background colors through the Color picker. Click on either square to change the color. To return them to the default choice of black or white, click on the two small squares on the bottom left, or simply press D as a shortcut. To reserve the background and foreground color, click on the two top right-hand squares or hit the X key on your keyboard.
  • Screen modes. Use the Standard Screen Mode to display the normal canvas on screen. The other modes display the image in a full-frame mode against either gray or black
  • Internet link. To directly access when online. click on the top icon-the Adobe Photoshop logo.

Monday, September 17, 2012

Edit Menu: Transform

Changing the perspective, angle, rotation, or scale of either an image or a selection can be done through transform.

  • Making a transform using layers and selections. To make a Transform, the image must be on a separate copy layer, or it must be made from a selection. it is not possible to the Background Layer. The style is chosen from the Transform sub menu, and the image or selection will then show a bounding box linked by eight small boxes, known as handles. Drag the handles to form the correct shape. To complete the Transform, either press the Return key, double-click inside the bounding box, or select Commit Transform in the Tool bar.
  • Scale. To change either the height or length, click on the middle on the relevant plane and drag it up or down (or from side to side) to enlarged or reduce as desired. to change the scale of both height  and length in proportion, click on one of the corner handles and then drag.
  • Rotate. Use to rotate your image or selection. Click above any of the handles and then drag to the left or right. Rotate and scale are combined in Free Transform (shortcut Ctrl/T).
  • Setting the Tool Options bar. Most Transform can also be controlled from the Tool Options bar. There are boxes to enter exact percentage increases or decreases for length and height, as well as for the angle of rotation.
  • Skew. Use Skew to slant a selection to the left or right, or upward or downward. Drag the center handle to do this accordingly. If you drag a corner handle, the slant will be applied to only one side.
  • Distort. This combines the actions of Skew and Scale. drag a corner handle to make the distortion biased to one side of the selection. Use a middle handle to distort that plane.
  • Perspective. The angle and level of how you look at an object or a scene (and how you photograph it from this position) is known as perspective. When a building is photograph from ground level, near its base, its top appears smaller (the angles converge), and the bottom bigger (the angles diverge). Transform Perspective can correct this distortion, or it can be used to create a false perspective to give an impression of scale. To broaden the perspective, drag a corner handle outward. To decrease it, drag it inward.
  • Warp. Use this very sophisticated Transform to make your image look as though it's wrapped around a three-dimensional object.
  • Viewing the Transform. If transforming the perspective or distortion of a complete image, using the Move tool, into a new empty file with a white background, bigger than the original image, so there is space to see the effect of the transform.
  • The Grid. To make sure straight lines are in perspective, use a grid (found in View menu). Change the style and size of it in Preferences in the Photoshop menu.
  • Warning. Remember that a digital image comprises pixels, and that any major transform that enlarges a selection will possibly display the unwelcome signs of "pix elation."

Wednesday, August 15, 2012

Photoshop Adjustments Sub menu: Color Controls

From the image menu, the Adjustment sub menu is opened. It contains the commands use to control contrast and color.

  • Auto fix. The Adjustment menu contains various Auto commands for correcting color and contrast. There is even one-Auto Smart Fix-that combines several corrections in one go. While these may occasionally work to improve the image (usually when it does not require too much work in the first place), it is best to ignore these and to use the other controls in the menu to fully control the look of your photographs.
  • Color balance. The balance between the three primary colors-red, green, and blue- and their opposites-cyan,magenta, and yellow-can be altered in the shadows, mid tones or highlights.  This, in theory, is similar to traditional color photographic printing. An example, if an image appears to contain too much cyan, by adding its opposite-yellow-the cast can be removed. Color balance is also used for toning black and white images.

Tuesday, August 14, 2012

Photoshop Image Menu

The commands in Image menu are used to change the size, shape, resolution, and format of a digital file.
Here is how we use it,
  • Image size. Use this palette in Elements to set the final size and resolution of your digital file. When opened (Image> Re-size >Image size), it shows the width and height of the current image in inches (or cm), and the number of pixels. beneath this is a resolution, which is normally expressed in pixels per inch (ppi). Ppi is sometimes confused with dpi (dot per inch), which is used to describe print quality. The higher the ppi, the better the quality of the image. For most uses however, 300ppi will be the highest required setting. 200ppi is often adequate for prints smaller than letter paper (A4). For images that will only ever be seen onscreen, 72ppi should be sufficient as this is the resolution of standard computer screens.

Sunday, July 15, 2012

Photoshop File Menu: Printing

Page setup
Check the page set-up before printing. Check the paper size, printer, the print scale, and orientation.

Print preview
When printing, select the print with preview. It will allow you to change or select option that will enhance your print outputs.

Print window
Changes you made to page setup or the image size will be shown in this box. This is important, to give you exact look for your image before print out.

Print size
The default was set to actual size of the image, but there are given option to rescale the image.

Saturday, July 14, 2012

Photoshop File Formats

Digital images comprise millions of pixels. The different ways they are calibrated and stored are known as file formats. If Save As is selected, a drop-down menu containing 17 different formats to choose from is presented. Many of these formats are only used in design or reproduction.

TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)
This is a standard format allowing images to be viewed, changed, and saved in most imaging software programs. A “profile” is attached which holds the digital information required for accurate printing and enables the image, size, colors, and contrast to be recognized on another computer. When saving as a TIFF, a box opens asking which compression is required. Usually, None is selected. However, for e-mailing TIFFs, you can use ZIP or LZW formats that reserve the quality.

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
JPEGs are compressed files that remove pixels to reduce the file size, making them quicker to send as e-mail attachments. The reduction in quality will be noticeable, though selecting Save for Web from the File Menu will produce files of excellent quality. Digital camera record files as JPEGs, that can converted to and saved later as TIFFs.

Sunday, June 10, 2012

Photoshop Workspace

Workspace. The Photoshop workspace comprises several different windows that gives access to the different tools, functions, and commands used to edit and correct photographs. By default, these are set to a standard setup, but they can all be placed anywhere on the screen depending on your preference.

  • Welcome- when Photoshop is opened, a Welcome screen appears. While it has useful links to tutorials and information on the program, seeing it every time Photoshop is used may become distracting, so untick the Show This Dialog at Start Up option. It can always be recalled if necessary from the Help menu.
  • Image window (Canvas)- when you open a photograph, it is placed within a canvas. Many images can be opened at the same time (providing the computer has enough RAM), and the canvas size can be adjusted to fit in the workspace by dragging the bottom right-hand corner.
  • Menu bar- similar to most computer programs, the Menu bar contains the menu that leads to different parts of Photoshop.
  • Tool Options bar- beneath the Menu bar is the Tool Options bar, which changes depending on the tool being used. The Tool Option bar allows users to customize the selected tool's settings.
  • Toolbox- the main tools used for editing and correcting images are held in the Toolbox. It contain more than 50 tools, many of which are hidden behind others and accessed by clicking on the small black triangle in the corner of the icon.
  • Palettes- various palettes containing important controls for the program, such as Layers and History, can be placed together on the right-hand side of the workspace (or anywhere else on the screen). Several appear by default, though these can be removed or replaced by others from the Window menu.
  • Palette docking- to keep the workspace tidy, palettes can be moved to the Palette Dock, next to the tool option bar. Their titles are displayed in a line. Click on a title to open the palette.
  • History- the History palette lists recent changes made, and it is simple to click back to a previous step if a mistake is made. Use the Snapshot function to save any stage of editing.
  • Photoshop elements workspace- the elements workspace is similar to Photoshop, but also includes a Shortcuts bar where common commands such as Open and Print can be accessed quickly.


Hardware Requirements for Photoshop
Photoshop File Menu: Printing
Photoshop File Formats
Importing Image Into Photoshop

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Hardware Requirement for Photoshop.

To execute photo editing, you need to have the following hardware and different requirements.
Here are the required hardware for Photoshop;

Cameras. Before starting in Photoshop, we must ensure we are using the correct equipment to capture our digital images.

  • Camera Formats- digital cameras are available in a wide range.
  • Resolution- digital image resolution is measured in megapixels.
  • Compact Cameras- the quality in compact digital camera has greatly improved in the past few years.
  • Lens quality- while resolution is important, another aspect determining image quality is the lens.
  • SLR Cameras- single lens reflex cameras normally have interchangeable lenses, and some can use optics designed for film cameras.
  • Larger formats- some medium and large format film cameras can be used with purpose-made digital backs that can record each photograph at 22M or more.
  • Cellphones- Even a 2M camera in a cellphone can produce image whose quality is relatively decent if processed correctly in Photoshop and not enlarge too much.
  • Upgrading Cameras- There is often the tendency, encouraged by some camera magazines and, of course, manufacturers, to upgrade cameras as new models are introduced.
Computers. After camera, the most important piece of equipment required for digital photography is a computer. Like cameras, they come in all shapes, sizes, and prices.
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