Showing posts with label TLE IV. Show all posts
Showing posts with label TLE IV. Show all posts

Thursday, October 18, 2012

Goat Raising,Points to Remember

In a study conducted by the Bureau of Animal Industry, it was found out that goats are multi-purpose ruminants producing 58.5% milk, 35.5% meat, 4.3% hide and 1.7% fiber. The study also showed that this animal can provide for the nutritional needs of the predominantly rural families all over the country. The goats is formerly known as the poor man's cow because old folks who can not afford cow's milk prefer drinking goat's milk. Aside from being cheap, goat's milk is more digestible compared to cow's milk.

Goat's meat is a good source of protein, thus it can supplement the needed nutritional requirements for the Filipino diet.
Goats are raised for their meat as well as for their milk.
Goats can be tethered in the yard. At day time, they are transferred from one pasture to another twice a day for fresh grasses.

Tuesday, October 16, 2012

Management Practices in Goat Raising

The economic importance of goat raising in the Philippines lies in the production of milk while the yield of goat's meat known as chevon is of secondary consideration.

Four Ways of Raising Goat

  1. Tethering. This is the most common practice of those who raise 1-6 goats. Each goat is tied with rope 8 meters long. The animals are transferred from one pasture to another depending on the availability of fresh grasses. Water is supplied at the goat's shelter at night. Occasionally, feed supplement are given.
  2. Extensive production. Fifteen goats are kept in small shed and are allowed to browse during the day back to their shelter at night. There is less management given to this type of production especially when the animals are trained to go back to their shelter at night.
  3. Intensive production. This method of raising goat requires a larger number of goats in the herd. There is a need for wider pasture land and houses and stalls are also provided. Fences are constructed to keep the animals in. Grasses and concentrate feeds are given to the animals.
  4. Integration in agricultural plantation. This method depends on the number of goats raised and commonly practiced in agricultural land planted to fruit trees like mango, coconut and other plants not affected by browsing goats.

Wednesday, October 10, 2012

Points to Remember in Cattle Fattening

  • Backyard or large scale cattle fattening can be profitable by following the guides in the operation of the project.
  • Preferred are of animals to raise is 2 to 3 years old. Older animals need shorter period of fattening than younger animals. Younger animals require longer feeding period.
  • Steers grow faster, gain more weight and easier to manage than heifer.
  • Improved like Brahman and Ongole or Nellore gain weight faster with less feeds than native animals.
  • Cattle can be fattened on all roughage rations or on roughage-concentrate ration. Roughage-concentrate ration is a combination of forage crops and concentrates such as rice bran, copra meal, bone meal and salt.
  • Rice straw, corn cobs, sugarcane tops, ipil-ipil leaves and other grasses are used as feeds for cattle.
  • Proper housing is important for the success of cattle fattening operation. It protects the animals   against adverse effect of weather.

Tuesday, October 9, 2012

Management Practices in Cattle Fattening

   Backyard cattle fattening or on a large scale production can be profitably undertaken. This project has become popular because of the following advantages: 1. It augments the farmer's income; 2. It requires less space for the housing; 3. It allows the use of cheap and plentiful farm by-products such as corn stovers, rice straw, copra meal, rice bran, and sugar tops which ordinarily go to waste; 4. It helps meet the high demand for high-protein foods in the Filipino diet.

Guides in the Operation of Cattle Production
A. Selection of Fattening Cattle
   To ensure a profitable income from fattening cattle, here are several factors to be considered.

  1. Age. Younger animals require longer feeding period while older animals take shorter for fattening. Feeds are utilized for maintenance, growth and fattening. two to three year-old animals are preferred for cattle fattening. older feeder stock need less time in feeding and will eat a wider variety of roughage than the young stock.

Monday, October 8, 2012

Quail: Types of Houses according to Age

A. Brooder House
  Immediately after hatching, quails are brooded with artificial heat needed by the chicks. A 25-watt bulb is usually placed at the middle of the cage. A temperature of 95 degrees Fahrenheit must be maintained during the first week and gradually decreases as the birds develop their feathers. Regulate the temperature and provide proper spacing and appropriate feeding to reduce death of birds. If the birds flock towards the light, the temperature is too low. However if the birds stay away from the light the temperature is too hot. The brooding procedures of chicken are same as in quails.
   After three weeks of brooding, the chicks are fully feathered and ready to be transferred to the layer house.
B. Layer House
   Quails that are to lay eggs are transferred to this house. Elevated slot floor made of bamboo or welded wire is mostly used. This type of house facilitates cleaning. A female quails start laying eggs 41 days from hatching.

Wednesday, September 26, 2012

Care and Management Practices for Quail

  Management practices which include the management of housing, brooding, feeding and sanitary measures in the farm to prevent the spread of diseases should be observed in the farm to insure maximum production and profit.

  Quails are easier to raise than chicken. Providing housing and fixtures are not as difficult as that of chicken. Locally available materials such as bamboo and used lumber or galvanized iron can be used to construct the house and fixtures for quail. the flooring and sides of the cage can be of bamboo splits nailed with a distance of 1/2 inch. a plastic mesh or welded wire can be used in all sides of the cage to protect the birds from rats. A 4 feet x 8ft. x 1 foot high cage is recommended for 250-300 layers.
  Native quail or pugo hatch their own eggs. for imported breeds they do not brood to incubate their eggs, therefore, an incubator must be be used.

  How to operate an electric table-top incubator/ hatcher for quail.

In order to get a higher hatching efficiency, the incubator should be properly operated.
  1. Check wire connections of the incubator. Check also electric voltage [220v] before plugging the incubator.
  2. Run the incubator for two days or until desired temperature [1000 to 1030oF] is maintained.
  3. Arrange the eggs in the egg tray. Do not load the tray tightly as eggs may be broken when turning.
  4. Check the water pans under the trays for humidity control before placing the trays eggs.
  5. Place a reminder chart on the activities to carry out during incubation.
     The eggs are arranged in the egg tray before placing them in the incubator.
  • Turn the eggs three times a day by passing the hands lightly over the eggs.
  • Candle on the 11th day.
  • Expect hatching on the 16th to 18th day.
  • Stop turning the eggs three days before hatching. On hatching day, when the chicks are out of the shells, the air vent on top of the incubator should be fully opened to allow ventilation and facilitates drying out of feathers.

Breeds of Quails

  Quails have several breeds known in the country. The native breed popularly known as pugo is the most common quail raised. This breed is mostly found in the field and forest but has been domesticated.

  The Japanese-Taiwan breed is also known as Chinese quail and one of the most popular breed raised in the country. The female has a gray underside flecked with darker feathers, while the male has reddish feathers on the underside. The eggs are small and egg production is lower.

  Japanese Seattle is an American breed. The color of the feather at the base of its head is maroon. They lay more eggs than Japanese-Taiwan and this breed is recommended for beginners.

  Black tuxedo with a white spot on the breast and silver white with black eyes are other available breeds that are also recommended for eggs and meat production.

Saturday, September 8, 2012

Cultural Practices in Oil Crop Production

Factors that are observed in raising these crops;

  1. Market. It is futile to raise any crop if there is no market for such a product. This statement is true in oil crop production.
  2. Transportation facility. Proximity to good roads and better transportation facilities greatly affect the production and marketing of farm products. Good transportation facility can cause reduction of the production cost and an increase of the market profit.
  3. Climate and Altitude. Adaptation has been proven in oil crop production. However, it is wise to select varieties of oil crops that will yield more under the prevailing conditions of the geographical region. 
  4. Topography or contour of the land. Level land with good drainage is suitable for oil crop production. Gently sloping land, however, is preferable to provide good drainage especially during the rainy season.
  5. Water supply. All kinds of commercial oil crops need abundant supply of water especially during dry season. During the growth and development stage, these plants needs higher soil moisture thus adequate water supply is very important.

Wednesday, September 5, 2012

Processing and Marketing Duck Products and By-Products

There are high demand for duck eggs and meat. Ducks egg can be sold fresh, salted and boiled as balut and penoy. Dressed ducks are also fried like chicken.

Balut Making
  Balut is mostly processed in incubators. Electric incubators are used to incubate the eggs of ducks. After three days of incubation, the eggs are examined to check whether the eggs are fertile or not. Unfertile eggs are separated and made into penoy. The eggs mostly incubated for thirteenth days to get the desired embryo. These eggs are boiled and sold as balut.

Salted Eggs
  Eggs can be salted by the following steps correctly.

   12 ducks eggs
    3 cups water 3 cups salt
  1. Clean the eggs and place them in a wide jar.
  2. Mix the salt and water and boil. Pour the cooked mixture in the jar with the eggs. See to it that all the eggs are immersed in the solution. The eggs usually stay afloat. Weigh them down by using plastic bag of water. Cover the jar with clean cloth and set it aside for fourteen days.
  3. Remove the eggs from the jar after fourteen days and drain well.
  4. Boil the eggs well.
  5. Cool the eggs.
  6. Salted eggs are colored red to distinguish them from penoy and to make them attractive. The eggs are now ready to sell or ready for eating.
Source: TLE IV Book

Management Practices in Raising Ducks

Housing the Ducks
     Ducks do not require expensive housing like chickens. Bamboo and nipa are the cheapest materials used in constructing their houses. Enclose the three sides of the house and allow one side as the door. The house should be well ventilated, dry and well-lighted to stimulate proper growth and egg production. The house should be provided with artificial pond measuring 10 by 8 feet and two feet deep to allow the immersion of duck heads. The ducks eye get scaly and crusty when water supply is limited. In addition, ducks clean and wash their bills periodically.
     House the growing ducks according to their age to avoid quarrels. Younger ducks are pushed by older ducks into the feeding trough. Ducks are mostly raised by range method where the ducklings are allowed to stay out door at day time.

Selection of stocks

   There are factors to consider when selecting or purchasing stocks. Ducks must be healthy. They must be free from pest and diseases and free from injury. Be sure to buy stocks from reliable dealers.

Monday, September 3, 2012

Duck Raising; Starting the Project

Duck raising is becoming popular nowadays. Ducks require less attention and need no elaborate housing like chicken do. Other reason include the following;
  1. They are more hardy, easily brooded and resistant to common avian diseases.
  2. Ducks lay eggs even up to the third year of production but the highest peak is the first and second year.
  3. There is a growing preference for ducks eggs as balut and salted eggs.
  4. Duck's meat is gaining popularity and public acceptance.
  5. Ducks have natural tendency of foraging.
There are several factors to consider when starting the project.
  1. Location of the project. A place with a watershed is highly recommended. In the absence of watershed, artificial pool should be constructed. select a place near natural ponds like lakes, rivers, or streams.

Sunday, August 12, 2012

Cultural Practices in Commercial Crop Production

Land preparation. Commercial crops such as pineapple, watermelon, cabbage, okra, tomato, cassava, sweet potato, mungo, sugarcane, and tobacco can be planted by the drill or hill method along the furrows after thorough tillage preparation. The drill method can also be done in mango, banana, and papaya but in most cases they are planted in previously prepared holes.

Planting materials, planting, and transplanting. Crop propagated sexually such as tomato, cabbage, and tobacco are planted first in seedbeds before they are transplanted. Watermelon, okra, mushroom, mungo, and peanuts are planted directly planted in the field. Grafted or budded mango seedlings are preferred as planting material over sexually propagated ones. Sweet potato, cassava, and sugar cane are planted using stem cuttings. The middle portion of the stem is best for cassava cuttings while the topmost portion of the stem is best for sweet potato and sugarcane cuttings.
Planting materials such as seeds, stem, cuttings, suckers, and tubers are best acquired from reliable seed dealers like the Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) and other BPI-accredited distributor.

Monday, July 23, 2012

Revised Forestry Code

The Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines (P.D. 705) defines the criminal offences in forestry and provides the corresponding penalties. Section 68, 70, and 71 state some offenses and penalties;

Section 68. Cutting, Gathering, and/or Collecting Timber or Other Products Without License. Any person who will gather, collect, or remove timber or other forest products from any forest land, or other forest timber from alienable or disposable public lands, or private lands, without any authority under a license agreement, lease, license, or permit shall be guilty of qualified theft as defined and punished under Articles 309 and 310 of the Revised Penal Code. Provided, that in the case of partnership, association, or corporation, the officers who ordered the cutting, gathering, or collecting shall be liable. If such officers are aliens, they shall in addition to the penalty, be deported without further proceedings on the part of the Commission on Immigration and Deportation. The court shall further order the confiscation in favor of the government of the timber or forest products cut, gathered, collected, or removed, and the machinery, equipment, implements, and tool used therein and the forfeiture of his improvements in the area.

Friday, July 20, 2012

Forest Conservation Different Approaches

Maintaining forest productivity should be the main concern of not only the government but everybody. This has to be given priority  because the ill-consequence of forest destruction in the past remains unabated. At present, the extent of forest damage is still serious and the rate of forest destruction in the Philippines is one of the fastest in the world.
Some effective approaches being implemented by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) through the Bureau of Forest Development (BFD) are the following;
Proper land classification and classification of existing forest. In the Philippines, mis-classification and misuse of land are corrected by implementing the provisions of P.D 705 which sets appropriate methods, criteria, and guidelines for proper land classification and survey of all lands of public domain. Lands are classified into agricultural, industrial or commercial, residential, resettlement, mineral, timber or forest, grazing and into such other classes. Forests are classified into several categories to limit the activities of illegal loggers.
Increasing the number of national parks. The declaration of Kalawit Island, Mount Apo, Kanlaon, Butuan national Parks and other forests as sacred is a move to conserve forest resources. These national parks are a safe haven for exotic and rare breeds of wildlife. logging is totally banned and hunting is also prohibited in the area.

Friday, July 13, 2012

Harvesting, Post-harvest Handling, and Marketing Spice Crops


Onion and garlic are ready for harvest as soon as the stalks begin to wither and dry normally or at about 100 to 140 days. Harvesting garlic and onion can be done by simply hand pulling. When harvesting onion and garlic, uproot the bulb individually together with the leaves from the loosened soil.

Ginger matures in six to eight months. When the leaves of the ginger plant start to fall aside and begin to dry, the rhizomes are ready for harvest. In harvesting ginger, the use of digging tools is advisable to ensure that the rhizomes will be pulled out intact.
Harvesting black pepper normally starts three years after planting. However, black pepper plants from marcotted  stems start bearing fruit after a year. The berries of peppercorns in spike mature in five to six months. Peppercorns are ready for harvest when two to three of the berries in same spikes change its color from green to orange and the seed is hard when pinched. The fruit spike is carefully pick by hand. To pick, twist off the spike while holding the preduncle steady so as not to break any branch. Separate the peppercorns from spike immediately.
Pepper. On the other hand, is harvested when the fruit starts to turn red. Harvesting is done by hand picking.
 Post-Harvest Handling

Philippine Climate and Planting Calendar

The Philippine has four distinct types of climate;

Type 1. This is characterized by having two pronounced seasons, dry from the month of November to April and wet during the rest of the year. It covers all provinces in the western part of Luzon, Mindanao, Negros, and Palawan.
Type II. This type of climate is characterized by having no dry season and a very pronounced maximum rainfall from November to January. The areas covered by this climate are the eastern part of Bicol, Quezon, Leyte, and a large portion of eastern  Mindanao.

Type III. In this type of climate, the seasons are not very pronounced. it is relatively dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year. The areas covered by this type of climate type include the western part of Cagayan Valley, Eastern Mountain Province, Southern Quezon, Bondoc Peninsula, Romblon, Northeast Panay, Eastern Negros, Central and Southern Cebu, Northern Mindanao, and Eastern Palawan.

Wednesday, July 11, 2012

Cultural Practices in Growing Spice Crops


Garlic and Union- have almost the same cultural components practices.
Land preparation, there are two methods of land preparation being practiced in onion and garlic production.
1.       Thorough tillage or clean culture. This is done by plowing the field two to three times with more or less seven days interval.
2.       Without tillage or zero tillage. This method of land preparation is generally done in lowland rice fields such as in Ilocos region. The rice straws are cut close to the ground after harvesting.
Preparation of Planting Materials, planting and transplanting. When planting garlic, select good-sized and well filled healthy garlic. Separate the cloves discarding the small ones in the center because these will produce small plants, hence small bulbs. Heavier cloves give better yield in terms of bulb size and weight irrespective of the size of the original bulb. Five hundred to seven hundred kilograms of cloves are needed to plant one hectare at wider spacing (14 to 25 cm). When closer spacing (5 to 8cm) is desired, 900 to 1100 kilograms of cloves are needed per hectare.
Planting should be done at the start of dry season. This is during the months of October to January in Type 1 climate; November to December to Type II climate; February to July in Type III climate; and February to April in Type IV climate.
The Ilocos method of planting is done with the aid of a pointed stick. The cloves are planted 1 to 2 cm deep vertically into the soil with the root plate down.

Harvesting, Post-Harvest Handling, and Marketing of Commercial Crops


Harvesting and post-harvest practices are the most crucial operations in commercial crop production. High quality products command a good market price which means bigger profit for the farmer for the farmer. In harvesting, the raiser should consider some factors such as the current market price, distance from the farm site to the market, and the length of time crops will be stored prior to marketing.

Post-harvest Handling
The farmer should not only know how to market his crops properly. He should also know how to handle his harvest in order to get the most out of them. Generally, most commercial crops undergo the following post-harvest handling before they are sold;
  1. Cleaning and washing
  2. Drying

Thursday, June 7, 2012

Spice Crop Production, the Prospects and Importance

The prospects of spice crop production in the Philippines are bright because of its high market demand. Types and varieties of high quality spice crops are available locally and can be grown in almost all part of the country.

In the Philippines, the most common type of spice crops grown are onion, garlic, ginger, black pepper, hot pepper, celery, shallots, leek, bay leaf, and tanglad. Among these crops however, only onion, garlic, ginger, black pepper, and hot pepper are grown commercially because of their high market demand and usefulness.

Uses of Spice Crops
Spice crops are distinctly classified because they give an agreeable flavor and aroma to food. They contain volatile oils, proteins, fibers, starch, minerals, and tannins which give flavor and have preservative and antiseptic properties. Spices are primarily used as food seasoning. In addition to their culinary uses, spices are also utilized as flavoring agent in beverages, active ingredient in syrubic medicines, coloring agent of textiles, and an important constituent in cosmetic and perfume products.

Saturday, May 26, 2012

Harvesting, Post-Harvest Handling, and Marketing

Harvesting of cut flower should be done early in the morning or late in the afternoon to reduce respiration and transpiration. Harvesting at midnoon is possible if there is no direct sunlight or when the weather is cool.
Flowers should be handled carefully after harvest or before they are marketed. For longer storage life and keeping quality, respiration, transpiration, and the rate of cell division of cell division should be reduced in cut flower. This can be done by submersing the stem of the newly cut flower to a solution consisting of hydrazine sulfate, manganese sulfate, sugar solution, or a solution consisting of potassium, aluminum sulfate, sodium hypochlorite, and ferric oxide. Commercially available preparations like Flora life and bloomlife can be used. Cut flower should not be exposed to high levels of ethylene gas since this will cause them to wilt and shorten their marketability.
Flowers should be packed in small volumes. The package should be non-water absorbent, gas-proof, and sufficiently strong to withstand handling, Cellophane or plastic are the most suitable packing materials for cut flower.
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